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The World in Brief ( Jan 1st Edition )

The World in Brief

This e-newsletter is provided courtesy of Reed CNY Business Law, P.C.

U.S. Golf & Americans with Disability Act of 1990 (ADA): PGA Tour, Inc. vs. Martin

Amid the COVID-19 pandemic, the golf industry is the one of the most significantly successful businesses all over the world. Public/private courses are all booked, and golf equipment/apparel business has been great. In addition to the business sector, golf continues to develop its relationship with young golfers, minorities and the disabled community.

In 2001, the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit affirmed the trial court’s permanent injunction judgment that ordering PGA tour (sponsor) to suspend its "walking rule" and allow Casey Martin, a golfer to use a golf cart in its tournaments under the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA). Since then, outreach programs have been implemented in each of these areas, which makes golf relevant to many of Reed Business Law’s clients, no matter where in the world they are located.

지난해 미국 골프산업은 코로나팬데믹의 위기속에서 크게 성장했습니다. 회원제/대중제 골프장 가릴것없이, 예약이 넘쳐났고, 골프장비, 의류사업들역시 호황을 이루었습니다. 비지니스적인 부분이외에도, 골프산업은 다양한 분야에 관심을 가지고 영향을 미치고 있는데, 특히 장애인들과의 관계개선은 미국골프산업의 괄목한 성과라고 할수 있습니다.

2001년, 미국제9순회항소법원은 PGA투어의 “Walking rule- 카트를 타지못하게 하고 걷기만으로 라운딩하는 룰”을 ADA (미국장애인관련법)을 이유로 골프선수, 케이시 마틴에게 부과한 점을 철회하라는 명령을 내렸습니다.

Professional golf tournaments comprise two tours, both of which are sponsored by one organization. Among the ways that an individual could qualify to compete is by successfully completing a three-day qualifying tournament known as the "Q-School." Any member of the public could enter the Q-School, by paying $ 3,000 and submitting two letters of reference from, among others, members of the two tours. Although the "Rules of Golf," which applied at all levels of amateur and professional golf, did not prohibit the use of golf carts at any time, during the third day of the Q-School the use of golf carts was prohibited. This matches a set of rules that applies specifically to the two tours, which require golfers to walk the golf courses during tournaments.

Casey Martin, a golfer with a degenerative circulatory disorder in one leg, successfully progressed through the first two stages of the Q-School, and then made a request, supported by detailed medical records, for permission to use a golf cart during the third day. After the sponsor refused to review the medical records or to waive the sponsor's walking rule for the third day, Martin filed an action against the sponsor under Title III of the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). Unless an entity can demonstrate that making modifications would fundamentally alter the nature of the accommodations, this well-known law requires an operator of public accommodations to make reasonable modifications in its policies when necessary to accommodate individuals with disabilities.

The United States District Court for the District of Oregon entered a preliminary injunction that made it possible for golfers to use a cart during the third day of the Q-School and on the two professional tours. The District Court later entered a permanent injunction requiring the sponsor to allow the golfer to use a cart in tour and qualifying events.

The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit upheld these rulings, finding that (1) the golfer was an individual with a disability as defined in the ADA; (2) Title III was applicable to the sponsor's treatment of the golfer, with respect to his wish to compete in the tours and the tours' qualifying rounds; and (3) to allow the golfer to use a cart during the tours' tournaments would not fundamentally alter the nature of the tournaments.

미국PGA투어에 프로선수로 활동하려면 “Q-school; 퀄리파잉스쿨”을 통과하는 방법이 있습니다. 어느 클럽에 소속된 아마츄어선수는 3,000불의 참가비와 2명의 투어프로에게서 받은 추천장이 있으면누구나 Q-school 에 참가할수 있습니다. Q-school은 사흘간의 라운딩을 통해 총스코어를 합산하여 투어프로를 선발하게 되는데, 첫째날과 둘째날은 카트를 허용하지만, 마지막날에는 반드시 걸어서 라운딩을 해야한다는 규칙이 있습니다. 이 규칙은, 마지막 라운딩에서 선수들의 피로도를 가늠하여 체력이 떨어진 상황에서 정신력을 유지하며 최고의 플레이를 하는 선수들을 선발하기 위함이라고 PGA투어는 주장했습니다.

소송을 제기한 케이시 마틴은 매우 탁월한 실력을 가진 골프선수였습니다. 아마츄어 대회, 나이키오프등을 우승한 경력이 있었으며 스탠포드대학골프팀에서 활동할 때 타이거우즈와 함께 라운딩한 경험도 있었습니다. 케이시마틴은 선천성 혈관기형이라고 하는 신체적장애를 가지고 있어 오른쪽다리를 잘 사용하지 못했습니다. 케이시에게 PGA투어의 walking rule은 극복하기 어려운 조건이었습니다. 그래서 케이시는 PGA투어에 마지막날에도 카트를 사용하게 해달라는 신청서를 제출했지만, PGA투어는 이를 거부했습니다. 그 이후 케이시는 미국 오레건주연방법원에 진정서를 제출하여 PGA투어의 walking rule을 삼가해달라고 요청하였고, 법원은 케이시의 요청을 받아들였습니다. PGA투어는 불복하고 항소하였지만, 항소법원역시 1심의 원심을 유지하며 케이시의 요청을 받아들였습니다. 항소법원은 PGA투어의 항소를 기각한 이유로 다음과 같이 판시하였습니다.

첫째, 케이시마틴은 ADA (미국장애인법)이 지정하는 장애를 가진 사람이다;

둘째, PGA투어는 장애를 가진 골퍼가 대회에 참가하는것을 장려하기 위해, 환경을 조성해주어야 한다;

마지막으로, 사흘째 경기에서 골퍼가 카트를 이용하게 하는 것은 토너먼트의 본질적인 가치를 훼손하지 않는다.

Reed Business Law consults with many businesses connected with the business of golf in New York State, either as owners, sponsors or participants. Our firm focuses on laws and regulations related to the operations of golf courses, including the ADA. Feel free to contact to our firm regarding the U.S. golfing idustry, operating a golf course or disability- questions related to the world of golf.

위의 판례에서 보듯이 미국의 골프장과 골프룰은 누구나 골프를 즐길수 있도록 장려하고 있습니다. 저희 로펌은 뉴욕주의 골프장의 사업자, 경영자 그리고 회원들이 골프비지니스를 운영하고 즐기는 데 컨설팅하고 있습니다.

Bio-Pharma: FDA Updates List of Off-Patent, Off-Exclusivity Drugs without an Approved Generic

The Hatch-Waxman Act created the U.S. generics industry. The intention was to provide U.S. consumers with less-expensive alternatives to innovator drugs, after the patents and marketing exclusivity protecting them have expired. Since 2017, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has been striving to help physicians, consumers and companies understand which brand name drug products are no longer protected by patents or exclusivities and currently have no generic competitors.

The agency publishes a list of products with no generic versions and updates it every six months (in June and December). FDA updates the list to improve transparency and encourage the development and submission of abbreviated new drug applications (ANDAs) for approval to sell generics in markets with little competition. Reed Business Law monitors FDA’s latest updates in order to make our client aware of opportunities to apply their expertise.

해치왁스먼법은 미국제네릭산업의 부흥을 가져왔습니다. 법안의 주된목적인 미국소비지들이 약품의 특허기간이 만료된후에, 저렴한 복제약품들을 구매할수 있도록 하는 것입니다. 2017년부터 미국 FDA는 제약산업의 투명화와 산업종사자 및 소비자들의 이해를 돕기위해, 어떠한 약품들의 특허가 만료되는지를 공개하고 있습니다. FDA는 해당약품들의 리스트를 6개월에 한번씩, 6월과 12월에 발표하고 있습니다.

Real Estate: New York State Moratorium on Evictions

The Senate Democratic Majority held a Special Session on December 28 to pass the COVID-19 Emergency Eviction and Foreclosure Prevention Act. This legislation is the strongest bill in the nation to block eviction proceedings from going forward and will help ensure that New York renters and homeowners can stay in their homes if they are experiencing hardships due to the pandemic. Any pending eviction proceedings, or any commenced within 30 days of the effective date of this legislation, will be stayed for at least 60 days to give tenants an opportunity to submit the hardship declaration. This effectively implements a two-month moratorium to ensure New Yorkers in need are able to take advantage of the protections under this legislation, which provides.

뉴욕주 상원은 최근 세입자및 건물주보호를 위한 강력한 법안을 발표했습니다. 본 법안은 미국내 발표된 세입자및 건물주를 보호하기 위한 법안중에서 가장 강력한 것으로 코로나팬데믹으로 인하여 경제적문제를 겪고있는 뉴욕주 주민들을 보호하기 위하여 발표되었습니다.

Prevent Evictions (for renters): This bill creates a Standardized Hardship Declaration Form, which tenants can submit in court or to their landlords to prevent or halt an eviction if they experience financial hardship due to the COVID-19 pandemic that prevents them from being able to pay their rent in full, or move; or if someone in the household is at increased risk of severe illness from COVID.

강제퇴거 (세입자보호): 세입자가 코로나팬데믹으로 인하여 경제적으로 힘든상황을 겪고 있으면, 서류를 작성하여 법원 또는 집주인에게 송달하고 나면, 강제퇴거명령을 당하지 않을수 있게 하였습니다.

Protect Property Owners (for homeowners): Property owners will be able to access foreclosure and tax lien sale protection by filing a Standardized Hardship Declaration Form with their mortgage lender, local assessor, or with a court, similar to that created by the eviction protection proposal. The owner will declare, under penalty of perjury, a financial hardship that prevents them from paying their mortgage or property taxes because of lost income, including reduction in rent collections; increased expenses; or the inability to obtain meaningful employment. Landlords with more than ten total units are excluded from these protections.

건물주보호: 건물주는 코로나팬데믹으로 위하여 경제적 어려움을 겪고 있으면, 서류를 작성하여 은행 또는 법원에 제출하면, 건물에 대한 이자및, 세금납부를 당분간 유예할수 있습니다.

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